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Home / Nurse Practitioner / 5 Best Florida Nurse Practitioner Programs + Requirements

5 Best Florida Nurse Practitioner Programs + Requirements

Nurse practitioners are advanced practice professionals. They are state-licensed to work in a specific field of health care, such as mental health, primary care or pediatrics. In order to become a nurse practitioner , candidates must hold a bachelor’s degree and relevant experience. In the past, a master’s degree was all that was required in order to become a nurse practitioner but the AACN has specified that programs should be delivered at the doctoral degree level from this year onwards.

It is very important to spend some time reviewing the different schools that offer nurse practitioner programs in order to find the one that best suits your personal needs. Below are what we consider to be the five best nurse practitioner programs in Florida. We have also included some information on how to become a nurse practitioner in the state.

1. Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

Three degree options are offered at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University. The goal of the programs is to develop highly knowledgeable professionals in important fields of healthcare. The emphasis is on evidence-based practice.

  • Campus: Tallahassee, FL
  • Type: Public
  • Accreditation: ACEN
  • Tuition: $9,876 for in-state students and $23,965 for out-of-state students
  • Minimum time commitment: 42 credits
  • Online availability: No
  • Degree requirements: BSN, RN license, GPA of 3.0 or GRE, prerequisite courses, 3 letters of reference, physical examination, personal statement, TOEFL
  • Programs: Adult Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioner and Women’s Health Nurse Practitioner, Post-Master’s Certificate
  • School Site:  Tuition and Financial Aid

2. Florida Atlantic University

Florida Atlantic University has maintained its two master’s nurse practitioner programs, as well as offering a DNP program. All require an extensive amount of clinical work. The DNP is offered mainly online, with any campus attendance organized on evenings and weekends.

  • Campus: Boca Raton, FL
  • Type: Public
  • Accreditation: CCNE
  • Tuition: $6,657 for in-state students and $17,885 for out-of-state
  • Minimum time commitment: 46 credit hours for AGNP, 49 credit hours for FNP, 2 years for DNP
  • Online availability: Some
  • Degree requirements: BSN, GRE or MAT, essay, 1 letter of recommendation, resume, RN license, transcripts, prerequisite courses, criminal background check
  • Programs: Family Nurse Practitioner, Adult/Gerontological Nurse Practitioner, DNP, BSN to DNP
  • School Site:  Tuition and Financial Aid
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3. Florida International University

At Florida International University, a range of different nurse practitioner programs are offered at master’s, post-master’s and doctorate level. Each program calls for a number of clinical hours. The exact number varies depending on the chosen program but is at least 600 hours.

  • Campus: Miami, FL
  • Type: Public
  • Accreditation: CCNE
  • Tuition: $10,269 for in-state students and $21,791 for out-of-state students
  • Minimum time commitment: Varies depending on program
  • Online availability: No
  • Degree requirements: Personal interview, transcripts, 3 letters of reference, resume, RN license, personal statement
  • Programs: Advanced Adult Gerontology Nurse Practitioner, Advanced Child Nurse Practitioner, Advanced Family Nurse Practitioner and Advanced Psychiatric and Mental Health Nurse Practitioner. Post-Master’s certificate, DNP
  • School Site:  Tuition and Financial Aid

4. Florida State University

Florida State University has dropped its master’s degree program for Family Nurse Practitioners and fully replaced it with a DNP. The majority of classes are offered virtually and through video conferences. It is an intensive, 90-credit degree program that also calls for 1,000 hours of practical experience.

  • Campus: Panama City and Sarasota-Bradenton, FL
  • Type: Public
  • Accreditation: CCNE
  • Tuition: $11,505 for in-state students and $25,937 for out-of-state students
  • Minimum time commitment: 90 credits
  • Online availability: Some
  • Degree requirements: Florida resident, BSN, GRE or MAT, RN license, transcripts, 2 letters of recommendation, background check
  • Programs: DNP FNP
  • School Site:  Tuition and Financial Aid

5. Nova Southeastern University

Nova Southeastern University allows students to complete their DNP fully online. Prospective students are expected to already hold a master’s degree in nursing or related field. Graduates are ready to take on positions of leadership in the field.

  • Campus: Palm Beach Gardens, FL
  • Type: Private
  • Accreditation: CCNE
  • Tuition: $750 per credit hour
  • Minimum time commitment: 24-36 months
  • Online availability: Yes
  • Degree requirements: MSN, transcripts, personal statement, prerequisite courses, GPA of 3.0, RN license, 2 letters of reference
  • Programs: DNP
  • School Site:  Tuition and Financial Aid

Steps to Become a Nurse Practitioner in Florida

Since the beginning of this year, a doctorate degree is required to become a nurse practitioner in Florida. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics , there is a projected job growth of 34% between now and 2022 in the field, and the average salary nationwide stands at $92,670.

The steps to become an NP in Florida are:

1. Hold a registered nurse license at bachelor’s level. Because the requirement of holding a DNP is relatively new for nurse practitioners, a number of schools are now offering direct BSN to DNP programs. However, in most cases, students will first have to complete a master’s degree before moving on to their DNP. Both the bachelor and master’s degree must be accredited by CCNE or ACEN.

2. Get a national certification for Nurse Practitioners.

3. Become licensed through the Florida Board of Nursing . In Florida, nurse practitioners are allowed to write prescriptions and will carry their own prescription pad. However, they are not allowed to prescribe controlled substances.

Once certified by the Board, you will be licensed as an Advanced Registration Nurse Practitioner (ARNP). This means that you also hold a Florida RN (registered nurse) license. The ARNP license will also show which area of specialization you are in.

4. Renew your license every two years, which can be done online .

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The Sunshine State of Florida is known not only for its tourism destinations and diverse cultural landscape, but also for its excellence in public higher education. Florida has several highly ranked, recognized schools and many of its cities are home to several accredited online degree programs and colleges. Some of the schools included in the State University System of Florida are University of Florida, University of South Florida, and Florida State University, along with 25 other schools within the system. Each year, more than $500 million in sponsored research is conducted at universities in Florida.

Jacksonville. With the largest urban park system in the United States, Jacksonville is the largest city in Florida and the fourteenth largest city in the country. In addition to an international airport, three major railroads run through Jacksonville, and three marine terminals make Jacksonville the second largest import and export automobile center in the United States. Well-known schools such as the University of Phoenix and Nova Southeastern University are just some of the places that offer online college courses in Jacksonville.

  • Florida State College. Florida residents can take advantage of the distance learning and online courses offered through this four-year state school. Students can pursue associate degrees in art as well as A.S. degrees in Business Administration, Criminal Justice Technology, and Industrial Management Technology. Online certificates in accounting, business, marketing, and office support are also available. Florida State College even has a cable channel with a schedule that airs lectures from different courses throughout the day.
  • Jones College. Accredited by ACICS (Accrediting Council of Independent Colleges and Schools), this Jacksonville-based private, for-profit college offers courses both online and on-campus. Currently only offering Associate of Science degrees, students can attend courses online in business administration, computer information systems, and interdisciplinary studies. Florida residents can exclusively take advantage of Jones College’s Legal Assistant associate degree program, as well as its career development services that assist students in preparing cover letters and resumes, locating potential employers, and providing practice for job interviews.
  • Jacksonville University. This four-year private university is open to residents outside of Jacksonville and offers online RN to BSN degrees as well as Master of Science in Nursing degrees with a concentration in Nursing Education or Leadership in Healthcare Systems.
  • ITT Technical Institute. This private, for-profit college has campuses across Florida as well as throughout the United States, and awards degrees at the associate, bachelor’s, and master’s degree levels. Students can pursue online degrees from ITT Tech’s School of Drafting and Design, School of Information Technology, School of Criminal Justice, School of Business, or their School of Nursing which recently opened on Jacksonville’s campus.
  • University of Phoenix. By offering online and on-campus courses, this private, for-profit institution offers online college degrees in Jacksonville at the associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree levels. Students can pursue degrees from University of Phoenix’s many programs in business and management, criminal justice and security, education, human services, arts, psychology, technology, and nursing and health care.
  • Virginia College – Jacksonville. Available online degree programs at this private, for-profit college with satellite locations throughout the southeastern United States include criminal justice, health service management, paralegal studies, cybersecurity, and many more.

Orlando. Located in central Florida, this well-known tourist hotspot has the third largest metropolitan area in the state. Online college courses in Orlando can be earned from popular institutions such as Nova Southeastern University, Everest University, and University of Phoenix.

  • Florida Institute of Technology. Since 2000, Florida Tech has offered complete degrees online at the associate, bachelor’s, and master’s degree level. Undergraduate students can choose between eight week and 15-week courses, while graduate courses are only offered courses in 15-week intervals. Degrees range from business administration at all degree levels, as well as degrees in accounting, healthcare, criminal justice, and information technology. Florida Tech even offers the first Greek organization for online students, Theta Omega Gamma .
  • University of Florida – Orlando. This public, four-year college has a campus in Orlando also offers online courses at the associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degree levels. University of Florida’s Virtual Campus offers online degrees in programs through the College of Education, College of Pharmacy, and College of Business Administration, among many other programs. If you are not looking to pursue an entire degree, courses and certificates are also available online. Residents of Florida may be entitled to lower tuition costs, as University of Florida is ranked among the cheapest universities in the American Association of Universities.
  • University of Central Florida – Orlando. Another one of Florida’s public universities, University of Central Florida has its main campus in Orlando and has partnerships with several local community colleges. UCF also offers several degree and certificate programs online. Undergraduate degree programs include political science, health services administration, interdisciplinary studies, nursing, and technical education. Meanwhile, graduate degrees and certificates are offered through UCF’s colleges of education, engineering and computer science, arts and humanities, health and public affairs, nursing, and sciences.
  • Florida Hospital College of Health Sciences. This private, faith-based college offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees in a wide range of health science disciplines, including nursing, biomedical sciences, and occupational therapy. Completion courses in nursing are offered entirely online for registered nurses pursuing Bachelor of Science in Nursing degrees.
  • Everest University. With campuses in both North Orlando and South Orlando, Everest University also offers online college courses in addition to associate, bachelor’s and master’s degrees.
  • International Academy of Design and Technology. With a campus in Orlando and many more across the country, this for-profit art school offers online associate and bachelor’s degrees in graphic design, web design and development, and information technology.

Miami. Known for its sunny weather, multicultural population, and exciting night life, the city of Miami is home to several public and private colleges and universities. For online college courses in Miami, residents can choose from any of the large state schools offering online programs, local colleges such as City Colleges, or local campuses for schools such as Strayer University.

  • Florida International University. As one of the bigger public universities located in Miami, Florida International University (FIU) is the fifteenth largest university in the country and the largest in South Florida. FIU offers certificates as well as undergraduate and graduate degrees entirely online. Professionals can also satisfy continuing education credits through FIU Online, and test preparation for the LSAT, GMAT, and GRE examinations are also available.
  • Miami Dade College. Through this junior college with satellite campuses throughout Miami-Dade county, Florida residents can earn associate degrees entirely online. As the largest non-profit institution of higher learning in the United States, many of Miami Dade College’s students move on to larger universities to complete their undergraduate studies. For those not seeking degrees, however, Miami Dade also offers non-credit courses as well as continuing education credits for working professionals.
  • Nova Southeastern University. One of the most popular schools for online college courses in Miami is Nova Southeastern University, which currently boasts 76 online degree and certificate programs. With campuses based in Miami, across Florida, and even in the Bahamas, students can pursue undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees. Some of the programs available online at the undergraduate degree levels include business, nursing, human resources, and education. Graduate and doctoral degree programs are available online in information technology, criminal justice, and occupational therapy.
  • City College. With many campuses across Florida, City College offers the majority of its programs on-campus. However, those interested in earning a nursing degree can do so through City College’s RN to BSN online program. Previous courses in nursing can be used towards prerequisite credits, and the curriculum involves research, clinical aptitude, and professional leadership and management skills. Additionally, City College also offers an online diploma in private investigation services.
  • Strayer University. This private, for-profit institution with campuses all over the country offers several online degrees, including bachelor’s, master’s, and associate degree programs in business administration, education, accounting, information systems, and criminal justice.

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#1 Exam Prep Blog for JEE Main, NEET and baord exams

Must Read NCERT Books

Vinit Mehta

Vinit Mehta


Published on
February 18th, 2018



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CBSE Editorial NCERT

Some Of The Must Read NCERT Textbooks:

Preparation for exams is a process which require an overall development of your understanding of the subject. This rigorous process demands going through the appropriate study material and solving tricky numericals along with an efficient revision. The most significant role played here is that of the study material for it is the first concrete base on which further understanding is based. Most CBSE -affiliated schools in today’s time offer to teach their syllabus through NCERT books. The NCERT books are best known for their simplicity and putting out concepts as they are without diving much deep into more complex theories.

Why NCERT books?

You must be very focused about the study material you choose to read and hence making the decision can become a tough task at times. We help you understand why NCERT books are at the top of its game in few factors:

  • Recommended and Accepted throughout the nation, private and public schools alike.
  • Easily available in even remote areas and cheap too.
  • Board Examinations are primarily and dominantly based on the content provided by NCERT.
  • Popular for tackling basic concepts and formulating strong retention in students. This comes handy in most entrance exams like JEE Main and AIPMT .

Must Read NCERT Books

NCERT books for Math

  • If you consider mathematics as abstruse and complicated, it is easy to disprove this notion by using the NCERT books for it. This book explains the core concepts through light examples. If you are one of those who skips the text and jumps right to the questions, it is time to take a step back.
  • The mathematics NCERT books are skillfully tailored to the needs of students who are often stuck in the reasoning behind certain concepts. It helps to understand why a particular procedure is being followed in the particular chapter. Only then can one apply the concepts in the numerical problems.
  • All questions are diverse and arranged in increasing order of difficulty. This ensures that solving the problems from NCERT books will give you a good understanding of the fundamentals. The concepts  in the book are the building blocks for future learning. While you are working to get your concepts sorted, you are already building a solid foundation for the mathematics section in JEE (Main) through NCERT books.

NCERT Books for Science

  • The NCERT books for science are divided into three parts: Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. One cannot stress enough the importance of learning the core basics of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamic and optics introduced in the NCERT books for physics. These chapters have been designed to reach the laziest of minds and generate interests consequently.
  • The concepts of stoichiometry, introduced in the 9th standard Chemistry book, are useful in college, and honestly, there is no better reference book than NCERT for organic chemistry. So you can bet that questions pertaining to them will show up in your JEE exam.  For all aspiring medical students, it is important for you to know that the biology of life will remain the same, however the learning will keep delving deeper into the cells. Hence it is better to know your macro processes in 9th and 10th to own the micro systems when it is time to take the AIPMT exam!
  • All you need to know for physics, chemistry and biology is condensed in a few pages in the NCERT books. Reading between the lines and mastering the in-text questions, will sort your academic woes concerning these subjects in the near future. This concise property of NCERT books makes it very handy, even during revision.

NCERT books for Social Studies

  • There is no refusing the fact that the Civics NCERT books were best known for their explanation of concepts through clever cartoons, especially those picked up directly from newspapers.
NCERT Books for Social Studies
More powers!
  • The Social Studies NCERT Books are rightfully segregated into History, Geography and Economics, as per the guidelines of CBSE Syllabus. The NCERT Books ensure that you understand that History and economics are important to satiate your curiosity to learn about the events which led India and the rest of the world to reach the current stage. Each chapter of your textbook is explained in depth providing an insight to events and decisions that have shaped the world as we see it. A little attention to your social studies book will also prepare you for the NTSE exams .
  • The geography textbook gives you an in-depth knowledge of every industry of the country and literally the entire geography of each section of India. The history books are laid out chronologically for better understanding of past events, along with analysis of what happened and their impacts.

Once you actually read and understand the NCERT books, you will develop an interest in the subjects with a better grasp. You can head over here to find out whether you should rely on NCERT solutions. That’s all for now. Happy learning!

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Vinit Mehta

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What the Most Alluring Women of 17th-Century England Looked Like

Beauty was an asset, a weapon, and a curse for the ladies of the Restoration court.

by Ella Morton

May 24, 2016

A portrait gallery at Windsor Castle, royal residence of Charles II. (Image: Public Domain )

On a wood-paneled wall in the Communications Gallery of London’s Hampton Court Palace hang 10 portraits in a line. All are of women, and all the women look remarkably similar: frizzy-haired, goggle-eyed, double-chinned, and swathed in great gathered folds of silk. These are the Windsor Beauties—the 17th century equivalent of the Maxim Hot 100.

The Windsor Beauties were chosen to be immortalized because they were the most alluring and powerful women at the court of Charles II, who became king of England, Ireland, and Scotland in 1660. Being selected for a Windsor Beauty portrait meant becoming a celebrity pin-up; copies of the portraits and engraved prints of the women circulated among admirers. Baptist May, Keeper of the Privy Purse and “court pimp,” in the words of Samuel Pepys, kept a stash of eight portraits in his private lodgings. Half of the women among those eight were royal mistresses.

And really, at that time, who wasn’t carrying on with Charles II. The king’s reign, which came after more than a decade of Puritan-fueled political upheaval, was so characterized by hedonism and licentiousness that he earned the name “the Merry Monarch.”

Charles II

Charles II, the party-hearty king, in a coronation portrait by John Michael Wright. (Image: Public Domain )

Attractive women were a necessary part of the king’s party ethos, and he wasn’t about to let a little thing called marriage get in the way of pursuing them ardently. Charles II kept multiple mistresses and fathered at least a dozen children, none of whom were born to his wife, Catherine of Braganza.

Women held unprecedented power during the Restoration era—as long as they were attractive and down for a sexual relationship with a monarch. (“Female beauty in England seems to have commenced its reign about the same time as that of Charles II,” wrote George Steinman in 1871.) For women of the court, physical attractiveness was “ an instrument of ambition, a conduit to pleasure and a magnet for sleaze .”

Beauty meant being noticed by Charles II, which could lead to mistress status and its associated party invitations, financial security, and a free apartment conveniently located near the king’s bed chamber. If a mistress gave birth to one of Charles II’s children, the king was inclined to recognize the child as a noble, which boosted the social status of the woman. Charles II also bestowed duchess titles on his favored mistresses as a reward for bearing his children and being general good sports about the whole arrangement.

Even the most attractive court women, however, had to be smoothed out a little when depicted in paintings. During the 1660s, chief court artist Peter Lely painted three-quarter-length portraits of the 10 court women who would go on to be known as the Windsor Beauties. Looking at the line-up, though, it’s hard to tell one from the other. Lely idealized the women’s features, applying the 17th-century equivalent of photoshop to ensure they all conformed to the prevailing beauty standards. In addition to having near-identical features—and that signature I’m-sleepy-but-sexy-and-also-judging-you facial expression—the women were shown in similar poses and décolletage-baring outfits.

These two Windsor Beauties portraits, for example, do not depict the same woman:

Mary Bagot (Windsor Beauties)

Mary Bagot, Countess of Falmouth and Dorset. (Image: Public Domain )

Frances Brooke (Windsor Beauties)

Frances Brooke, Lady Whitmore. (Image: Public Domain )

The following trio of Beauties is also, despite appearances, comprised of three distinct women.

Anne Digby (Windsor Beauties)

Anne Digby, Countess of Sunderland. (Image: Public Domain )

Henrietta Hyde (Windsor Beauties)

Henrietta Hyde, Countess of Rochester. (Image: Public Domain )

Elizabeth Hamilton (Windsor Beauties)

Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Gramont. (Image: Public Domain )

Public opinion of the Windsor Beauties was mixed and often mercurial. The most notorious and well-known Beauty, Barbara Villiers—variously described as a “ beautiful shrew ,” a “ lady of a thousand charms ,” the “ all-powerful queen of love ,” and “ the female Don Juan ”—attracted a special kind of attention. Granted, Villiers, who bore at least five of Charles II’s children, was unafraid of scandal and forthright about pursuing money and sex—from Charles II and others. Her “greed of gain,” wrote royal biographer W.R.H. Trowbridge in 1906, “was only equaled by her man-hunger!”

Barbara Villiers, depicted by Lely as Minerva, Roman goddess of wisdom and war. (Image: Public Domain )

At least when it came to Charles II, the appetite was mutual. In January 1663, less than a year after Charles II married Catherine, Samuel Pepys noted that the king visited Villiers at least four evenings a week, usually staying the night and slinking back through the garden to his own room in the morning. Villiers had such a hold over the king that he even forced Catherine to employ Villers as one of her ladies of the bedchamber in 1662, which granted her a salary and lodging. When Catherine learned that she would be employing her husband’s favored mistress, she experienced an immediate, violent nosebleed, briefly lost consciousness, and had to be carried away to recover.

Villiers is the ultimate example of how beauty blessed and cursed the women of the Restoration court. Her attractiveness won her favors and admiration, even when her behavior was reprehensible—when Villiers left her husband, Roger Palmer, in 1662 to go be with Charles II, Pepys mused how “strange it is how for her beauty I am willing to construe all this to the best … though I know well enough she is a whore.” A year later, however, having sighted Villers in person, Pepys wrote that she was “not so handsome as I have taken her for, and now she begins to decay something.” Villiers was 23 at that time.

Of course, being a mistress is not a lifetime position. In the early 1670s, Charles II found a new favorite mistress: the beguiling, baby-faced Louise de Kérouaille . Villers lost her position as lady of the bedchamber and was ousted both from Charles’ affections and the court. After a few more affairs and a marriage in 1705, Villiers died at Walpole House in Chiswick in 1709, aged 68. Her spirit was said to haunt the building, according to a 1907 book , “wringing her hands and bemoaning the loss of her beauty,” even as her portrait still hangs.

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The Women's Rights Movement in England: 18th Century and Beyond

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The Women’s Rights Movement in England: 18th Century and Beyond The 18th century was a period of slow change for women’s rights in England. The Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution were coterminous at this point in history and brought the new thoughts about women’s rights to England in the late 1700s. In the 1700s women were not as concerned with voting as they were with divorce, adultery, and child custody rights. However, as the population of single women grew throughout the 18th and 19th century the concern for more rights for women became prevalent (Wolbrink, 4 Nov. 2011). By 1851, 43 percent of women in England were single and began to campaign frequency and sometimes forcibly for their rights (Wolbrink, 4 Nov. 2011). Reformer

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According to Victorian ideology women were expected to behave with politeness, meekness, delicacy, and gentleness (Wolbrink, 4 Nov. 2011). Essentially a “sweet vocation” was the goal and employment of women in the 1700s (CP 141). Victorian author Jean-Jacques Rousseau often spoke of women’s virtue as a unifying strength, “ [A] woman’s empire is an empire of gentleness, skill, and obligingness; her orders are caresses, her threats are tears” (DiCaprio 250). A brash women would have been seen as an embarrassment to the family.
This can be seen in Jane Austen’s novels from this period. An example of a brash or over emotional women in her book Sense and Sensibility would be Marianne. This sister defines ‘sensibility’ by riding with her emotions and typically not planning through her actions (Video). Most women were tied to the home in the 18th Century. Modesty had become an important part of family and society life. Women were considered to have a natural maternal instinct and a natural devotion to family. Attempting to leave this role of motherhood was seen as monstrous and unwomanly by society (Wolbrink, 4 Nov. 2011) Women expected to stay in the private sphere. This hiding from the outside world was an attempt to protect the purity of women reiterating that women are the weaker sex and must be protected. This philosophy is exemplified in an 18th century metaphor, “Women is a plant which in it’s own green house seclusion will put forth all its brilliant

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    Prior to the famous movement for women’s suffrage in the society, women had little or no say in the society. If they happen to be working, it was gruelling things like housework that would sometimes extend over the course of the whole day, or, later on during the famous industrialization era that took place, in various factories they get paid very little and work long hours. On the other hand women had the go ahead to vote but in only some states, it was practically a big joke to think of a woman…

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    Women’s Suffrage is a subject that could easily be considered a black mark on the history of the United States. The entire history of the right for women to vote takes many twists and turns but eventually turned out alright. This paper will take a look at some of these twists and turns along with some of the major figures involved in the suffrage movement.
    The first recorded instance in American history where a woman demanded the right to vote was in 1647. Margaret…

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    government went through great length to prevent specific groups from having the right and ability to vote. One group in particular that were deprive voting rights in the past was women. The idea that women wanted to be not above a man, but equal was unfathomable to most men and women. In the past, women were seen as unintelligent servants to their husbands and children. They were deprived many rights especially the right to vote in public state or national elections. This did not change until the…

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    Today ‘s American women are following centuries old traditions of rebelling against society ‘s outlook on women around. Earlier in America ‘s history, it was unheard of for a woman to be in both the public and domestic sphere. Women were forced to spend most of their life in the domestic sphere, and wear ridiculous clothes everyday. For a long time, women have been degraded and pushed around, causing women to initial movements to change the way society treats women. In America, “the land of the…

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    Throughout history, society has impacted the lifestyle of the individual. Change in society has a particular impact on the individual. During the Vietnam era, change in society was drastic. Many movements began during this time period. One of these was the escalation of the Women’s’ Liberation Movement. Women’s rights was always a concern, but during…

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    On July 4, 1804, a group of young men in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, offered a series of toasts to commemorate the nation’s independence. Among their testimonials, they offered one to a cherished ideal:”[To] the rights of men, and the rights of women-. May the former never be infringed, nor the latter curtailed.” The men acknowledged, even celebrated, an innovative and controversial idea: women along with men should be regarded as the bearers of…

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    it, “The greatest voting day in the city’s history.” It was a wonderful day for women all across the country. All of their hard work had finally paid off. The Women’s Rights Movement changed the way women were seen. Before the passage of the 19th Amendment, women in many states were not given the right to vote. The Women’s Rights movement was caused by many factors, greatly impacted the society of the early 1900s and changed American society forever.
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100 Must-Read Essay Collections

Notes Native Son coverThere’s something about a shiny new collection of essays that makes my heart beat a little faster. If you feel the same way, can we be friends? If not, might I suggest that perhaps you just haven’t found the right collection yet? I don’t expect everyone to love the thought of sitting down with a nice, juicy personal essay, but I also think the genre gets a bad rap because people associate it with the kind of thing they had to write in school.

Well, essays don’t have to be like the kind of thing you wrote in school. Essays can be anything, really. They can be personal, confessional, argumentative, informative, funny, sad, shocking, sexy, and all of the above. The best essayists can make any subject interesting. If I love an essayist, I’ll read whatever they write. I’ll follow their minds anywhere. Because that’s really what I want out of an essay — the sense that I’m spending time with an interesting mind. I want a companionable, challenging, smart, surprising voice in my head.

So below is my list, not of essay collections I think everybody “must read,” even if that’s what my title says, but collections I hope you will consider checking out if you want to.

1. Against Interpretation — Susan Sontag
2. Alibis: Essays on Elsewhere — André Aciman
3. American Romances — Rebecca Brown
Jo Ann Beard4. Art and Ardor — Cynthia Ozick
5. The Art of the Personal Essay — anthology, edited by Phillip Lopate
6. Bad Feminist — Roxane Gay
7. The Best American Essays of the Century — anthology, edited by Joyce Carol Oates
8. The Best American Essays series — published every year, series edited by Robert Atwan
9. Book of Days — Emily Fox Gordon
10. The Boys of My Youth — Jo Ann Beard
11. The Braindead Megaphone — George Saunders
12. Broken Republic: Three Essays — Arundhati Roy
13. Changing My Mind — Zadie Smith
14. A Collection of Essays — George Orwell
15. The Common Reader — Virginia Woolf
16. Consider the Lobster — David Foster Wallace
17. The Crack-up — F. Scott Fitzgerald
18. Discontent and its Civilizations — Mohsin Hamid
19. Don’t Let Me Be Lonely: An American Lyric — Claudia Rankine
20. Dreaming of Hitler — Daphne Merkin
21. Self-Reliance and Other Essays — Ralph Waldo Emerson
22. The Empathy Exams — Leslie Jameson
23. Essays After Eighty — Donald Hall
24. Essays in Idleness — Yoshida Kenko
25. The Essays of Elia — Charles Lamb
Ex Libris cover26. Ex Libris: Confessions of a Common Reader — Anne Fadiman
27. A Field Guide to Getting Lost — Rebecca Solnit
28. Findings — Kathleen Jamie
29. The Fire Next Time — James Baldwin
30. The Folded Clock — Heidi Julavits
31. Forty-One False Starts — Janet Malcolm
32. How To Slowly Kill Yourself and Others in America — Kiese Laymon
33. I Feel Bad About My Neck — Nora Ephron
34. I Just Lately Started Buying Wings — Kim Dana Kupperman
35. In Fact: The Best of Creative Nonfiction — anthology, edited by Lee Gutkind
36. In Praise of Shadows — Junichiro Tanizaki
37. In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens — Alice Walker
38. Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? — Mindy Kaling
39. I Was Told There’d Be Cake — Sloane Crosley
40. Karaoke Culture — Dubravka Ugresic
41. Labyrinths — Jorge Luis Borges
42. Living, Thinking, Looking — Siri Hustvedt
43. Loitering — Charles D’Ambrosio
44. Lunch With a Bigot — Amitava Kumar
45. Madness, Rack, and Honey — Mary Ruefle
Samantha Irby Meaty46. Magic Hours — Tom Bissell
47. Meatless Days — Sara Suleri
48. Meaty — Samantha Irby
49. Meditations from a Movable Chair — Andre Dubus
50. Memories of a Catholic Girlhood — Mary McCarthy
51. Me Talk Pretty One Day — David Sedaris
52. Multiply/Divide: On the American Real and Surreal — Wendy S. Walters
53. My 1980s and Other Essays — Wayne Koestenbaum
54. The Next American Essay , The Lost Origins of the Essay , and The Making of the American Essay — anthologies, edited by John D’Agata
55. The Norton Book of Personal Essays — anthology, edited by Joseph Epstein
56. Notes from No Man’s Land — Eula Biss
57. Notes of a Native Son — James Baldwin
58. Not That Kind of Girl — Lena Dunham
59. On Beauty and Being Just — Elaine Scarry
60. Once I Was Cool — Megan Stielstra
61. 100 Essays I Don’t Have Time to Write — Sarah Ruhl
62. On Kissing, Tickling, and Being Bored — Adam Phillips
63. On Lies, Secrets, and Silence — Adrienne Rich
64. The Opposite of Loneliness — Marina Keegan
65. Otherwise Known as the Human Condition — Geoff Dyer
66. Paris to the Moon — Adam Gopnik
67. Passions of the Mind — A.S. Byatt
Slouching Towards Bethlehem68. The Pillow Book — Sei Shonagon
69. A Place to Live — Natalia Ginzburg
70. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination — Toni Morrison
71. Pulphead — John Jeremiah Sullivan
72. Selected Essays — Michel de Montaigne
73. Shadow and Act — Ralph Ellison
74. Sidewalks — Valeria Luiselli
75. Sister Outsider — Audre Lorde
76. The Size of Thoughts — Nicholson Baker
77. Slouching Towards Bethlehem — Joan Didion
78. The Souls of Black Folk — W. E. B. Du Bois
79. The Story About the Story — anthology, edited by J.C. Hallman
80. A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again — David Foster Wallace
81. Ten Years in the Tub — Nick Hornby
82. Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man — Henry Louis Gates
83. This Is Running for Your Life — Michelle Orange
84. This Is the Story of a Happy Marriage — Ann Patchett
85. Tiny Beautiful Things — Cheryl Strayed
86. Tuxedo Junction: Essays on American Culture — Gerald Early
87. Twenty-eight Artists and Two Saints — Joan Acocella
88. The Unspeakable — Meghan Daum
89. Vermeer in Bosnia — Lawrence Weschler
90. The Wave in the Mind — Ursula K. Le Guin
91. We Need Silence to Find Out What We Think — Shirley Hazzard
92. We Should All Be Feminists — Chimamanda Ngozi Adichi
93. What Are People For? — Wendell Berry
94. When I Was a Child I Read Books — Marilynne Robinson
95. The White Album — Joan Didion
96. White Girls — Hilton Als
97. The Woman Warrior — Maxine Hong Kinston
98. The Writing Life — Annie Dillard
99. Writing With Intent — Margaret Atwood
100. You Don’t Have to Like Me — Alida Nugent

If you have a favorite essay collection I’ve missed here, let me know in the comments!

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This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2017) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )

For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation) .
For a description of essays as used by Wikipedia editors, see Wikipedia:Essays .
“Essai” redirects here. For other uses, see Essai (disambiguation) .

Essays of Michel de Montaigne

An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author’s own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of a paper , an article , a pamphlet , and a short story . Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal. Formal essays are characterized by “serious purpose, dignity, logical organization, length,” whereas the informal essay is characterized by “the personal element (self-revelation, individual tastes and experiences, confidential manner), humor, graceful style, rambling structure, unconventionality or novelty of theme,” etc. [1]

Essays are commonly used as literary criticism , political manifestos , learned arguments , observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose , but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g., Alexander Pope ‘s An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man ). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke ‘s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus ‘s An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples.

In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education . Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills; admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants, and in the humanities and social sciences essays are often used as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams.

The concept of an “essay” has been extended to other media beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a linked series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions .


  • 1 Definitions
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 Europe
    • 2.2 Japan
  • 3 Forms and styles
    • 3.1 Cause and effect
    • 3.2 Classification and division
    • 3.3 Compare and contrast
    • 3.4 Descriptive
    • 3.5 Dialectic
    • 3.6 Exemplification
    • 3.7 Familiar
    • 3.8 History (thesis)
    • 3.9 Narrative
    • 3.10 Argumentative
    • 3.11 Economic
    • 3.12 Reflective
    • 3.13 Other logical structures
  • 4 Academic
  • 5 Magazine or newspaper
  • 6 Employment
  • 7 Non-literary types
    • 7.1 Film
    • 7.2 Music
    • 7.3 Photography
    • 7.4 Visual arts
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links


John Locke ‘s 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding .

An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a “prose composition with a focused subject of discussion” or a “long, systematic discourse”. [2]
It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall. Aldous Huxley , a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. [3] He notes that “the essay is a literary device for saying almost everything about almost anything”, and adds that “by tradition, almost by definition, the essay is a short piece”. Furthermore, Huxley argues that “essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference”.
These three poles (or worlds in which the essay may exist) are:

  • The personal and the autobiographical: The essayists that feel most comfortable in this pole “write fragments of reflective autobiography and look at the world through the keyhole of anecdote and description”.
  • The objective, the factual, and the concrete particular: The essayists that write from this pole “do not speak directly of themselves, but turn their attention outward to some literary or scientific or political theme. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, and drawing general conclusions from the relevant data”.
  • The abstract-universal: In this pole “we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions”, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience.

Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays “…make the best not of one, not of two, but of all the three worlds in which it is possible for the essay to exist.”

The word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, “to try” or “to attempt”. In English essay first meant “a trial” or “an attempt”, and this is still an alternative meaning. The Frenchman Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592) was the first author to describe his work as essays; he used the term to characterize these as “attempts” to put his thoughts into writing, and his essays grew out of his commonplacing . [4] Inspired in particular by the works of Plutarch , a translation of whose Œuvres Morales (Moral works) into French had just been published by Jacques Amyot , Montaigne began to compose his essays in 1572; the first edition, entitled Essais , was published in two volumes in 1580. For the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones. Francis Bacon ‘s essays , published in book form in 1597, 1612, and 1625, were the first works in English that described themselves as essays. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, according to the Oxford English Dictionary .


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The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. (January 2011) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )


English essayists included Robert Burton (1577–1641) and Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682). In France, Michel de Montaigne ‘s three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay. In Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Cortigiano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom. [5] During the Age of Enlightenment , essays were a favored tool of polemicists who aimed at convincing readers of their position; they also featured heavily in the rise of periodical literature , as seen in the works of Joseph Addison , Richard Steele and Samuel Johnson . In the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. The early 19th century, in particular, saw a proliferation of great essayists in English – William Hazlitt , Charles Lamb , Leigh Hunt and Thomas de Quincey all penned numerous essays on diverse subjects. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art and culture by using essays (e.g., T.S. Eliot ). Whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays. Virginia Woolf , Edmund Wilson , and Charles du Bos wrote literary criticism essays. [5]


Main article: Zuihitsu

As with the novel , essays existed in Japan several centuries before they developed in Europe with a genre of essays known as zuihitsu — loosely connected essays and fragmented ideas. Zuihitsu have existed since almost the beginnings of Japanese literature. Many of the most noted early works of Japanese literature are in this genre. Notable examples include The Pillow Book (c. 1000), by court lady Sei Shōnagon , and Tsurezuregusa (1330), by particularly renowned Japanese Buddhist monk Yoshida Kenkō . Kenkō described his short writings similarly to Montaigne, referring to them as “nonsensical thoughts” written in “idle hours”. Another noteworthy difference from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were more prized at the time.

Forms and styles

This section describes the different forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists .

Cause and effect

The defining features of a “cause and effect” essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject , determine the purpose , consider the audience , think critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the language , and decide on a conclusion. [6]

Classification and division

Classification is the categorization of objects into a larger whole while division is the breaking of a larger whole into smaller parts. [7]

Compare and contrast

Compare and contrast essays are characterized by a basis for comparison, points of comparison, and analogies. It is grouped by the object (chunking) or by point (sequential). The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. When writing a compare/contrast essay, writers need to determine their purpose, consider their audience, consider the basis and points of comparison, consider their thesis statement, arrange and develop the comparison, and reach a conclusion. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. [8]


Descriptive writing is characterized by sensory details, which appeal to the physical senses, and details that appeal to a reader’s emotional, physical, or intellectual sensibilities. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the rhetorical choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic. The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language , metaphor , and simile to arrive at a dominant impression. [9] One university essay guide states that “descriptive writing says what happened or what another author has discussed; it provides an account of the topic”. [10]
Lyric essays are an important form of descriptive essays.


In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophy , the writer makes a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument (with a counterargument), but then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument. This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper. [11]


An exemplification essay is characterized by a generalization and relevant, representative, and believable examples including anecdotes . Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay. [12]

Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population


An essayist writes a familiar essay if speaking to a single reader, writing about both themselves, and about particular subjects. Anne Fadiman notes that “the genre’s heyday was the early nineteenth century,” and that its greatest exponent was Charles Lamb . [13] She also suggests that while critical essays have more brain than the heart, and personal essays have more heart than brain, familiar essays have equal measures of both. [14]

History (thesis)

A history essay sometimes referred to as a thesis essay describes an argument or claim about one or more historical events and supports that claim with evidence, arguments, and references. The text makes it clear to the reader why the argument or claim is as such. [15]


A narrative uses tools such as flashbacks , flash-forwards , and transitions that often build to a climax. The focus of a narrative is the plot . When creating a narrative, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their point of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically. [16]


An argumentative essay is a critical piece of writing, aimed at presenting objective analysis of the subject matter, narrowed down to a single topic. The main idea of all the criticism is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, a critical essay requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure. Its structure normally builds around introduction with a topic’s relevance and a thesis statement , body paragraphs with arguments linking back to the main thesis, and conclusion. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized. Each argument of argumentative essay should be supported with sufficient evidence, relevant to the point.


An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme. It can take a narrative course and a descriptive course. It can even become an argumentative essay if the author feels the need. After the introduction, the author has to do his/her best to expose the economic matter at hand, to analyze it, evaluate it, and draw a conclusion. If the essay takes more of a narrative form then the author has to expose each aspect of the economic puzzle in a way that makes it clear and understandable for the reader


A reflective essay is an analytical piece of writing in which the writer describes a real or imaginary scene, event, interaction, passing thought, memory, or form — adding a personal reflection on the meaning of the topic in the author’s life. Thus, the focus is not merely descriptive. The writer doesn’t just describe the situation, but revisits the scene with more detail and emotion to examine what went well, or reveal a need for additional learning — and may relate what transpired to the rest of the author’s life.

Other logical structures

The logical progression and organizational structure of an essay can take many forms. Understanding how the movement of thought is managed through an essay has a profound impact on its overall cogency and ability to impress. A number of alternative logical structures for essays have been visualized as diagrams, making them easy to implement or adapt in the construction of an argument. [17]


University students , like these students doing research at a university library, are often assigned essays as a way to get them to analyze what they have read.

Main article: Free response

In countries like the United States and the United Kingdom , essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in selecting applicants (see admissions essay ). In both secondary and tertiary education, essays are used to judge the mastery and comprehension of the material. Students are asked to explain, comment on, or assess a topic of study in the form of an essay. In some courses, university students must complete one or more essays over several weeks or months. In addition, in fields such as the humanities and social sciences,[ citation needed ] mid-term and end of term examinations often require students to write a short essay in two or three hours.

In these countries, so-called academic essays also called papers, are usually more formal than literary ones.[ citation needed ] They may still allow the presentation of the writer’s own views, but this is done in a logical and factual manner, with the use of the first person often discouraged. Longer academic essays (often with a word limit of between 2,000 and 5,000 words)[ citation needed ] are often more discursive. They sometimes begin with a short summary analysis of what has previously been written on a topic, which is often called a literature review .[ citation needed ]

Longer essays may also contain an introductory page that defines words and phrases of the essay’s topic. Most academic institutions require that all substantial facts, quotations, and other supporting material in an essay be referenced in a bibliography or works cited page at the end of the text. This scholarly convention helps others (whether teachers or fellow scholars) to understand the basis of facts and quotations the author uses to support the essay’s argument and helps readers evaluate to what extent the argument is supported by evidence, and to evaluate the quality of that evidence. The academic essay tests the student’s ability to present their thoughts in an organized way and is designed to test their intellectual capabilities.

One of the challenges facing universities is that in some cases, students may submit essays purchased from an essay mill (or “paper mill”) as their own work. An “essay mill” is a ghostwriting service that sells pre-written essays to university and college students. Since plagiarism is a form of academic dishonesty or academic fraud , universities and colleges may investigate papers they suspect are from an essay mill by using plagiarism detection software, which compares essays against a database of known mill essays and by orally testing students on the contents of their papers. [18]

Magazine or newspaper

Main article: Long-form journalism

Essays often appear in magazines, especially magazines with an intellectual bent, such as The Atlantic and Harpers . Magazine and newspaper essays use many of the essay types described in the section on forms and styles (e.g., descriptive essays, narrative essays, etc.). Some newspapers also print essays in the op-ed section.

An 1895 cover of Harpers , a US magazine that prints a number of essays per issue.


Employment essays detailing experience in a certain occupational field are required when applying for some jobs, especially government jobs in the United States. Essays known as Knowledge Skills and Executive Core Qualifications are required when applying to certain US federal government positions.

A KSA, or “Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities,” is a series of narrative statements that are required when applying to Federal government job openings in the United States. KSAs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for the successful performance of a position are contained on each job vacancy announcement. KSAs are brief and focused essays about one’s career and educational background that presumably qualify one to perform the duties of the position being applied for.

An Executive Core Qualification, or ECQ, is a narrative statement that is required when applying to Senior Executive Service positions within the US Federal government. Like the KSAs, ECQs are used along with resumes to determine who the best applicants are when several candidates qualify for a job. The Office of Personnel Management has established five executive core qualifications that all applicants seeking to enter the Senior Executive Service must demonstrate.

Non-literary types


A film essay (or “cinematic essay”) consists of the evolution of a theme or an idea rather than a plot per se, or the film literally being a cinematic accompaniment to a narrator reading an essay.[ citation needed ] From another perspective, an essay film could be defined as a documentary film visual basis combined with a form of commentary that contains elements of self-portrait (rather than autobiography), where the signature (rather than the life story) of the filmmaker is apparent. The cinematic essay often blends documentary , fiction , and experimental film making using tones and editing styles. [19]

The genre is not well-defined but might include propaganda works of early Soviet parliamentarians like Dziga Vertov , present-day filmmakers including Chris Marker , [20] Michael Moore ( Roger & Me (1989), Bowling for Columbine (2002) and Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004)), Errol Morris ( The Thin Blue Line (1988)), Morgan Spurlock ( Supersize Me: A Film of Epic Portions ) and Agnès Varda . Jean-Luc Godard describes his recent work as “film-essays”. [21] Two filmmakers whose work was the antecedent to the cinematic essay include Georges Méliès and Bertolt Brecht . Méliès made a short film ( The Coronation of Edward VII (1902)) about the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII , which mixes actual footage with shots of a recreation of the event. Brecht was a playwright who experimented with film and incorporated film projections into some of his plays. [19] Orson Welles made an essay film in his own pioneering style, released in 1974, called F for Fake , which dealt specifically with art forger Elmyr de Hory and with the themes of deception, “fakery,” and authenticity in general. These are often published online on video hosting services . [22] [23]

David Winks Gray’s article “The essay film in action” states that the “essay film became an identifiable form of filmmaking in the 1950s and ’60s”. He states that since that time, essay films have tended to be “on the margins” of the filmmaking the world. Essay films have a “peculiar searching, questioning tone … between documentary and fiction” but without “fitting comfortably” into either genre. Gray notes that just like written essays, essay films “tend to marry the personal voice of a guiding narrator (often the director) with a wide swath of other voices”. [24] The University of Wisconsin Cinematheque website echoes some of Gray’s comments; it calls a film essay an “intimate and allusive” genre that “catches filmmakers in a pensive mood, ruminating on the margins between fiction and documentary” in a manner that is “refreshingly inventive, playful, and idiosyncratic”. [25]


In the realm of music , composer Samuel Barber wrote a set of “Essays for Orchestra,” relying on the form and content of the music to guide the listener’s ear, rather than any extra-musical plot or story .


“After School Play Interrupted by the Catch and Release of a Stingray” is a simple time-sequence photo essay .

A photographic essay strives to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs . Photo essays range from purely photographic works to photographs with captions or small notes to full-text essays with a few or many accompanying photographs. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order — or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once or in an order that the viewer chooses. All photo essays are collections of photographs, but not all collections of photographs are photo essays. Photo essays often address a certain issue or attempt to capture the character of places and events.

Visual arts

In the visual arts , an essay is a preliminary drawing or sketch that forms a basis for a final painting or sculpture, made as a test of the work’s composition (this meaning of the term, like several of those following, comes from the word essayJA’s meaning of “attempt” or “trial”).

See also

  • Abstract (summary)
  • Admissions essay
  • Body (writing)
  • Book report
  • Thesis
  • Essay thesis
  • Five paragraph essay
  • Introduction
  • List of essayists
  • Plagiarism
  • SAT Essay
  • Schaffer paragraph
  • Treatise
  • Writing


  1. ^ Holman, William (2003). A Handbook to Literature (9 ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 193. 
  2. ^ Gale – Free Resources – Glossary – DE Archived 2010-04-25 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  3. ^ Aldous Huxley, Collected Essays, “Preface”.
  4. ^ “Book Use Book Theory: 1500–1700: Commonplace Thinking” . Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  5. ^ a b essay (literature) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia Archived 2009-12-04 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  6. ^ Chapter 7: Cause and Effect in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  7. ^ Chapter 5: Classification and Division in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  8. ^ Chapter 6: Comparison and Contrast in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  9. ^ Chapter 2: Description in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  10. ^ Section 2.1 of the Simon Fraser University CNS Essay Handbook. Available online at:
  11. ^ “How to Write an Ethics Paper (with Pictures) – wikiHow” . Archived from the original on 2016-08-28. Retrieved 2016-07-01. 
  12. ^ Chapter 4: Exemplification in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  13. ^ Fadiman, Anne . At Large and At Small: Familiar Essays. p. x. 
  14. ^ Fadiman, At Large and At Small, xi.
  15. ^ History Essay Format & Thesis Statement, (February 2010)
  16. ^ Chapter 3 Narration in Glenn, Cheryl. Making Sense: A Real-World Rhetorical Reader. Ed. Denise B. Wydra, et al. Second ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2005.
  17. ^ Mission Possible’ by Dr. Mario Petrucci” (PDF). Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved 2014-10-25. 
  18. ^ Khomami, Nadia (20 February 2017). “Plan to crack down on websites selling essays to students announced” . The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. 
  19. ^ a b Cinematic Essay Film Genre Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
  20. ^ ( registration required ) Lim, Dennis (July 31, 2012). “Chris Marker, 91, Pioneer of the Essay Film” Archived 2012-08-03 at the Wayback Machine .. The New York Times . Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  21. ^ Discussion of film essays Archived 2007-08-08 at the Wayback Machine .. Chicago Media Works.
  22. ^ Kaye, Jeremy (2016-01-17). “5 filmmakers that have mastered the art of the Video Essay” . Medium. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
  23. ^ Liptak, Andrew (2016-08-01). “This filmmaker deep-dives into what makes your favorite cartoons tick” . The Verge. Archived from the original on 2017-08-30. Retrieved 2017-07-05. 
  24. ^ Gray, David Winks (January 30, 2009). “The essay film in action” . San Francisco Film Society . Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. 
  25. ^ “Talking Pictures: The Art of the Essay Film” . Retrieved March 22, 2011.

Further reading

  • Theodor W. Adorno , “The Essay as Form” in: Theodor W. Adorno, The Adorno Reader, Blackwell Publishers 2000.
  • Beaujour, Michel. Miroirs d’encre: Rhétorique de l’autoportrait’. Paris: Seuil, 1980. [Poetics of the Literary Self-Portrait. Trans. Yara Milos. New York: NYU Press, 1991].
  • Bensmaïa, Reda. The Barthes Effect: The Essay as Reflective Text. Trans. Pat Fedkiew. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1987.
  • D’Agata, John (Editor), The Lost Origins of the Essay. St Paul: Graywolf Press, 2009.
  • Giamatti, Louis. “The Cinematic Essay”, in Godard and the Others: Essays in Cinematic Form. London, Tantivy Press, 1975.
  • Lopate, Phillip. “In Search of the Centaur: The Essay-Film”, in Beyond Document: Essays on Nonfiction Film. Edited by Charles Warren, Wesleyan University Press, 1998. pp. 243–270.
  • Warburton, Nigel . The basics of essay writing. Routledge, 2006. ISBN   0-415-24000-X , ISBN   978-0-415-24000-0

External links

This article’s use of external links may not follow Wikipedia’s policies or guidelines. Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references . (February 2015) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: How to write an essay
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Essays .
  • Essay writing category on
  • What is an Essay? from Wikidot
  • Essay eTexts at Project Gutenberg
  • The Dialectical Essay: A detailed writing guide  – Sewanee University
  • In Praise of the Undergraduate Essay by Dan Edelstein, Stanford University
  • The Age of the Essay  – Criticism of the modern essay, by Paul Graham
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      The Best SAT Essay Ever

      Objective Correlatives. Steamed fish. SAT essays. Ethan Sawyer, the College Essay Guy , explains how objective correlatives, such as steamed fish, can help you write the best SAT essay ever. 


      Ethan Sawyer, read by Mignon Fogarty


      Grammar Girl

      May 15, 2015

      Episode #466


      The Best SAT Essay Ever

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      Subscribe on iTunes Subscribe on Stitcher Subscribe on Spotify Subscribe on Google


      Six years ago, a student in my class, Joseph Tsai, wrote the greatest SAT essay ever. No joke.

      I’ll share it with you in a minute, but before I do, let me set it up:

      The Objective Correlative

      T.S. Eliot claimed the only way to express emotion in art is through the use of an objective correlative. What’s that, you ask?

      It’s an OBJECT that you CORRELATE to certain emotions.

      Okay, that’s not much help. Here are a couple quick examples:LordoftheRings

      1. The One Ring in Lord of the Rings

      Think about it: it’s not just a ring. It also represents greed and power, how power can corrupt, and how power can help you do awesome things like turn invisible and sneak past Gollum, for example.


      2. The wilting enchanted rose in Beauty and the Beast

      But it’s not just a flower, right? It represents the selfishness that got the dude turned into a beast in the first place. Plus, it’s a ticking clock: when the last petal falls off … well, I won’t spoil it for the three of you who haven’t seen the film.Rose_BeautyandtheBeast


      3. The snow globe in Unfaithful

      This film, co-penned by Oscar-winning screenwriter Alvin Sargent, has the most complex and clear use of an objective correlative I have ever seen in film. But note that this film is Rated M for Mature. Just sayin’.

      How can you use an objective correlative to make a reader feel things?

      Step 1: Program the object with qualities and emotions.

      What do I mean by “program”? When you introduce the object, associate it with several emotions or values.

      Example: Early in the film Toy Story we see that Andy, Woody’s owner, has written his name in big letters on the bottom of Woody’s shoe. This image—“ANDY” scrawled in kid handwriting on the bottom of Woody’s shoe—represents all the love, happiness, and friendship that connect Woody and Andy, all of which are established during the opening “You’ve Got a Friend in Me” montage.

      Once you have associated your object with emotions and values, you will have turned that simple object into a complex objective correlative that you can do stuff with.

      What kind of stuff? Like making the reader or viewer FEEL all sorts of things.


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      5 Tricks for Choosing Your College Essay Topic


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      5 Tricks for Choosing Your College Essay Topic

      by Phoebe Bain
      Student, Brandeis University


      Coming up with a good topic for your college essays can feel like the ultimate form of writer’s block. After all, what could you possibly write about that will represent you in 500 words or less? The creative process definitely isn’t easy, but these tips and tricks from people who have been through the process should help you get your thoughts flowing and ideas moving.

      1. Focus on a moment                    

      One of the easiest ways to think of a college essay topic is to focus on a specific instance that changed you or that represents something about your character. As Madie, a Brandeis University student, puts it, “You don’t need to tell a long and complicated story to have a good college essay. All you need is a moment. Start with a moment, and work out from there. Then come back to that moment at the end of your essay.” In Madie’s Common Application essay, she wrote about the mantra she said to herself every day before she got out of her car to go to school. While that may seem like a rather simple topic to write about, for Madie, that everyday occurrence defined her. So ask yourself: what is a moment in your life that defined you?

      Whether it is the time you ate a weird-looking fruit, the peculiar way you brush your teeth, or the time you went skydiving, it doesn’t matter. The moment itself is not important. What that moment says about you is.

      Related: Which Common Application Essay Prompt is Right for You?

      2. Stand out

      It’s true: the college admission process is tougher than ever. Basically every student you will be up against has done some sort of community service. Everyone has some sport or musical instrument or other extracurricular they excel at. Tons of kids work a part-time job in addition to all their other responsibilities. It’s hard to find something you did in high school that will make you unique in an applicant pool. This is not to discount the work you have done; it is just to say that everyone is writing similar essays about similar things.

      You want to write about something that will make you stand out. Write about something that the poor admission officer reading all these essays hasn’t read before. So take a second to think: what’s something you’ve done that your classmates haven’t? Was it meaningful to you? If so, get writing.

      3. When disaster strikes . . . write about it!

      In the college admission process, it can be easy to get caught up in trying to come off as the “perfect” candidate. You have worked so hard to get perfect grades, perfect SAT or ACT scores, perfect extracurricular activities—you get the picture. However, here is a little-known secret about college applications: perfect is boring. The people in admission offices reading your essays read about “perfect” all day. Your essay is the time to spice up your application. Show them a time in your life where maybe everything didn’t go so perfectly. For instance, Jackson, a Division III student-athlete, wrote about the time he injured his ankle in tennis, only to go through extensive and excruciatingly painful rehab to finally get back on the court, where, on his first day back, he injured his other ankle. While revealing any imperfection in a college essay may seem contradictory to the goal of convincing a college to admit you, it often showcases your best qualities. For example, the fact that Jackson was able to stick with tennis and rehab after all of these trials shows that he is persistent and strong. As he put it, “My college essay wasn’t about making myself seem amazing. It was more about reflecting on my past experiences and seeing where they got me today.”


      Perfect is Boring


      4. Be genuine

      Rachel, a student at James Madison University , recalls her Common Application essay with pride, because she was true to herself in everything she wrote. In fact, she says her essay was “the most genuine thing she has ever written.” When Rachel’s prompt asked her what her favorite place was, she knew she shouldn’t pick her bedroom or the beach she went to as a child, because those are everyone’s favorite places. She wanted her favorite place to be her own. So Rachel wrote about swing sets. “Swings are everywhere,” she says, so it was a relatable topic while still being unique to her own personality. Additionally, using swings as her favorite place gave her a lot of imagery to work with in her essay, because she could literally describe what being on the swings felt like. The important lesson to take away here is that if you are truthful and genuine in your essay, it will be easy to write about.

      5. Write about your childhood

      Your entire college application talks about who you were in high school. Admission officers see what activities you did in high school, what classes you took in high school, and what scores you got—you guessed it—in high school. While these things are important, so much of your personality forms as a child too. My friend Caroline, who was accepted to schools such as George Mason University , Wittenberg University , and Seattle University , wrote about how interest in exploration started as a child. She wrote a narrative about pushing boundaries. As a child, Caroline always rode her bike just a little bit farther than her parents allowed her to. Eventually she ended up riding all the way into the forest and exploring nature, where she developed her passion for saving the environment. By writing about how her interests, tendencies, and passions came from her childhood, Caroline was able to give admission officers a more complete picture of who she is. Think about what you did as a child that says something about your personality now. Write about what makes you, you!

      Keep calm and happy writing everyone!

      Note: Did you know you could win a $10,000 scholarship for college or grad school just by registering on CollegeXpress? This is one of the quickest, easiest scholarships you’ll ever apply for. Register Now »

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      Motherhood And Its Challenges

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      Motherhood And Its Challenges

      The word mother means a female parent who brings up a child, takes care of her and loves absolutely by putting the needs of her children over her own. A mother takes the whole duty of parenting with both her words and her actions. Being a mother can be extremely fulfilling but it has got its fair share of challenges; it has got far-fetched highs and the demanding feeling of affection and protectiveness that comes with it has to be well balanced.

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      The most magnificent and satisfying of times of motherhood is just the quality time you spend with your kids and just simply watch them grow and be happy.

      A mother usually offers a warm, selfless and an understanding environment and to most mothers, the particular moments spent with their children are not comparable to any other moment. Explicitly, the period of being a mother is the most thrilling moment that life can present to a woman. Motherhood involves being a capable wife and mother, to be an affectionate and a kind friend to all members of the family and above all, to keep the house operational.

      All these, mothers are expected to do in a single stride and still remain the most self-controlled member of the family because more often than not, mothers should build great friendships with their children and husbands. The unconditional love that mothers offer should carry with it self-responsiveness, beauty that comes from inside and refinement coupled with high aptitude. All these images are not very easy to keep up with but all the same, the society expects mothers to achieve all these. Against this background therefore, it is no little truth to emphasize that motherhood is generally a big challenge.

      (Rosenberg, D. 64-66). Body: Measuring your achievements as a mother is not an easy concept; the challenges present themselves each single day and the solution is just in having the right attitude and striving to solve a predicament by finding fresh ideas in making things smooth sailing. The positive aspect is achieved by understanding the reason you became a mother in the first place and realizing that it is still in existence; this is important because with time, mothers realize that the challenges do not go, they only change forms.

      The hitch is that by viewing things from this angle, most mothers identify their shortfalls and deal with them while providing the proof that the challenge is adequately dealt with, this can be well achieved by having a feedback mechanism. The rationale behind this strategy is straight forward: since things that can not be quantified tend to be given less consideration, the gist is to focus more interest and time on the quantitative aspects because they can be planned, registered and evaluated, this therefore enables one to easily come up with solutions (DiQuinzio.

      P. 32-34). In comparison, juggling motherhood with employment or business can be trickier than managing motherhood as a full time mother. To every mother, the family is the most important thing and is so fulfilling to give attention to, on the other extreme, ones personal accomplishments are equally important and should therefore not be sacrificed at the expense of the quality of the family unit. This makes the whole issue very difficult contrary to what the society has always believed that multitasking is manageable to mothers.

      According to Elraviv Yung, a social scientist at the Beijing school of law, “the potentials of women have not gotten the appreciation they deserve, women add a lot of value to the society and the very fact that they can juggle up their roles as both entrepreneurs and mothers should be a great motivation to the society” Elraviv 56. The best strategy for this group of women would still be to come up with a workable formula on time management and do a feedback mechanism after a certain specified duration.

      This is mostly by dividing your time in such a way as to have time both for the family and work and to ensure no time is spent on the extreme. The feedback plan helps mothers to asses their achievements in the timelines and correcting any deviations from plans. Research has revealed that being a mother in the present day has more to face up to and is more difficult than it was twenty to thirty years in the past. Dealing with busy schedules, coping up with pressure in the society and teaching children to acquire acceptable values are just a few out of the scores of concerns that the society presents.

      Infact, standards have deteriorated as compared to how they were in the past. Controversially though, the society judges mothers more harshly than fathers and when it comes to instilling values in our children, a lot is expected from mothers than is from fathers (Rosenberg, D. 80-82). The effects of motherhood challenges can be far-fetched: mothers often sacrifice too much to an extent that they end up not having time for their own ambitions. This is very costly than beneficial because in as much as a mother feels that her ideal objective of being a mother are achieved, self fulfillment is overlooked.

      Another effect is that motherhood-especially full-time- is so devastating-due to fatigue- that in the long run, it leads to different illnesses that may be chronic. These illnesses may be less affordable to treat and this leads to difficulty in achieving these goals in the first place. Achieving the set goals and assessing the deviations from plans at times may be unrealistic especially considering that time in itself may be limited. It should be understood therefore that motherhood is difficult-but at times fulfilling- and trying to live up to the society’s expectations may at times be unachievable (DiQuinzio.

      P. 89-93). Conclusion: Overall, the role of a mother although difficult, is the most important in her life. Motherhood ,as generally expected in the society, is supposed to be characterized by self-denial, fostering and unrelenting, on the other extreme, a mother is more often than not expected to feel on the wrong side of the law if her standards are not as high as is generally acceptable. Motherhood as an occupation is expected to embrace social, physical and emotional sides.

      The social characteristic entails the expectations that a mother will put together the family structure and ensure that the family relationships are functionally healthy. Apart from this, the mother has to guard the way the family and the larger society views her achievement, that is to say, are they up to standard? Emotionally, a mother should be there for her family and to ensure her presence is felt: dealing with a child’s achievements and disappointments as well as their feelings and teaching them how to cope with their emotional challenges.

      Motherhood also involves meeting the expectations of the larger family in giving them adequate attention and time. Left to one person to deal with single-handedly, striving to achieve these expectations can be overwhelming. Works Cited DiQuinzio. P. The impossibility of motherhood: feminism, individualism, and the problem of mothering. Routledge, 1999. Rosenberg, D. Motherhood without guilt: being the best mother you can be and feeling great about it. Source

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      LEARN MORE Blog /Need to write a descriptive essay about my mother? You have come to the right place


      Need to write a descriptive essay about my mother? You have come to the right place

      July 14, 2017 | GradeMiners


      A descriptive essay is a special type of essay that describes a person, place, emotion, object, place or situation. In this essay example, the focus shall be on my mother i.e. the kind of person she is, her attributes, personality and what makes her world go round.

      My mother is perhaps my number one favorite person in the entire universe. There are plenty of reasons for this including her unconditional love for me and my siblings, her constant sacrifices in a bid to ensure our happiness, her inner strength that makes the world a better place to live, her immense wisdom buried deep within her soul just to mention a few.  She is simply a precious gift to me.

      Mother has a kind and caring heart, very rare in the world we live in. She gave birth to four children but went ahead to shelter three other needy children who ended up being our siblings. She shared her heart, warmth and love amongst all of us without favoritism whatsoever. How she managed to do this is still a mystery to my siblings and I.

      Cooking great food is among the list of things mum loves to do. Growing up, I was always excited about meal times because they were real treats. I owe my cooking prowess to my mother who was also relentless in teaching us to be great cooks. Her recipes were often original and well thought of. Up to date, I look for some of her delicacies in restaurants and other dining joints but I have been unsuccessful in locating some. Perhaps I should encourage her to author her own recipe book.

      When it comes to physical appearance, my mother has striking features able to turn heads even in her advanced age. Her long brunette hair always left her friends red with envy during her youthful days. She has a slim physique not because she was born that way but because she chooses to be healthy. She is a great source of inspiration on this issue as she still exercises by taking on household chores all day long while watching what she and father put on their plates.

      Whenever any of us fell ill at home, mother would move heavens and earth to ensure we received good treatment and care during the entire period. Her compassion for the sick is commendable; she would come up with home remedies for the sickness and spend time making sure we were comfortable all through.

      Lastly, my mother loves lending a hand to the less fortunate whenever there is an opportunity to do so. She is a member and contributor in more than five charity bodies that help many people ranging from the sick, the poor, the gender biased communities, those oppressed by culture among others. She is often a volunteer at local charity events and you can tell she enjoys lending a hand always.

      A few tips on writing a descriptive essay about my mother

      The first thing to remember when writing a descriptive essay about my mother is to highlight special attributes that makes mother special and unique. One could start from the point of why mother holds a special place in his or her heart. Focus on the following key points;

      • What mother means to you
      • Her unique characteristics that make her stand out from a crowd
      • What makes mother inspire special feelings and thoughts in your mind
      • What mother enjoys doing to add value to her family and the world at large
      • How mother is skilled in taking care of others

      Are you looking for the best descriptive essay about mother online? We are your best shot. Not only do we have more than five years’ experience in the industry but we offer just the best solution for you. All our writers are well vetted and educated in many areas and offer non-plagiarized content always. If you are not satisfied with our job, we have a money-back guarantee meaning you have absolutely nothing to lose. Contact our 24-hour customer care today and wait as we deliver the best descriptive essay for you.

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      Terrance V. Montgomery says:
      27 April at 12:34 pm

      OMG! It’s really great article. Very sincere and easy-to-read. Made me want to call my mom. Thanks so much for these inspiring text!

      Dennis P. Guest says:
      12 April at 12:07 pm

      I am speechless. Is it only me or this article makes everyone cry? Such a moving story and a perfect example of a descriptive essay. Special thanks to the authors for a writing guide.

      Teresa R. Cutler says:
      5 April at 10:33 am

      It’s the coolest example of a descriptive essay I have ever seen. Thank you very much for the explanation and such a beautiful sample.

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      Mothers: An Essay on Love and Cruelty


      – May 1, 2018


      Jacqueline Rose


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      A simple argument guides this book: motherhood is the place in our culture where we lodge, or rather bury, the reality of our own conflicts. By making mothers the objects of both licensed idealization and cruelty, we blind ourselves to the world’s iniquities and shut down the portals of the heart.

      Mothers are the ultimate scapegoat for our personal and political failings, for everything that is wrong with the world, which becomes their task (unrealizable, of course) to repair. Moving commandingly between pop cultural references such as Roald Dahl’s Matilda to insights on motherhood in the ancient world and the contemporary stigmatization of single mothers, Jacqueline Rose delivers a groundbreaking report into something so prevalent we hardly notice.

      Mothers is an incisive, rousing call to action from one of our most important contemporary thinkers.

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      “How to Be a Good Creature: A Memoir in Thirteen Animals” by Sy Montgomery

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      • Hardcover: 256 pages
      • Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux (May 1, 2018)
      • Language: English
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